Effects of Graded Levels of Typha angustifolia Rhizomes on Intestinal Microflora, Immune System, and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

Main Article Content

Camile Kondo Nyembo
Herve Tchoffo
Margaret Momo Chongsi
Pascaline Azine Ciza
Innocent Murhula Amani
Leslie Tsopingni Tieubou
Raphaël Jean Kana

Abstract

Introduction: The ability of growth-promoting antibiotics to accumulate in livestock products such as meat, eggs, and milk, and the antibiotic resistance conferred on bacteria has prompted researchers to turn to phyto-additives. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of Typha angustifolia rhizome powder as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler chicken.


Materials and methods: For this purpose, 512 one-day-old chickens of the Cobb500 strain were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design of 8 treatments of 16 chicks replicated four times. Experimental rations consisted of incorporating into a control ration 1 g of Doxycycline® (0+), and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g of Typha angustifolia /kg of feed, respectively.


Results: The main results revealed that feed intake was not significantly affected by the different treatments. Over the study period, supplementing chicken with 6 g of T. angustifolia/kg increased live weight and weight gain by about 6.72% and 6.82%, respectively, compared to the negative control. Similarly, this phyto-additive, at the incorporation rate of 6 g/kg, decreased the chicken feed conversion ratio by 12.83% compared to the control without additives. The 6 g of Typha angustifolia/kg of feed induced a significant increase in the weight, length, and density of the intestine as compared to the negative control ration. This phyto-additive, whatever the rate, significantly increased the number of lactic acid bacteria, and the digestibility of crude protein and dietary fiber compared to the negative control. Apart from the serum concentration of total cholesterol and high-density cholesterol, which increased significantly with 1 g of Typha angustifolia compared to the negative control, all the haemato-biochemical parameters were not significantly affected by this phyto-additive, whatever the incorporation rate.


Conclusion: In the condition of the present study, it was concluded that 6 g of Typha angustifolia/kg of feed can be used as a substitute for antibiotics growth promoters in animal feed.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nyembo, C. K., Tchoffo, H., Chongsi, M. M., Ciza, P. A., Amani, I. M., Tieubou, L. T., & Kana, R. J. (2023). Effects of Graded Levels of Typha angustifolia Rhizomes on Intestinal Microflora, Immune System, and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens . Journal of World’s Poultry Science, 2(4), 39–46. https://doi.org/10.58803/jwps.v2i4.20
Section
Original Articles

References

Krishan G, and Narang A. Use of essential oils in poultry nutrition: A new approach. J Adv Vet Anim Res. 2014; 1(4): 156-162. DOI: 10.5455/javar.2014.a36

Mafouo SV, Kana JR, Raphaël J, and Kissel ND. Preservative effects of Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) on farm-mixed poultry feed. Int J Livest Res. 2019a; 9(3): 49-61. DOI: 10.5455/ijlr.20181027101318

Mafouo SV, Kana JR, and Nguepi DK. Effects of gradel levels of Azadirachta indica seed oil on growth performance and biochemical profiles of broiler chikens. Anim Nutr Prod Res. 2019b; 5(3): 442-450. DOI: 10.1002/vms3.162

Romario KTT, Ngouana RT, Kana ADS, Ciza PA, Donfack M, Mouchilli M, et al. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) on feed digestibility, growth performance and gut microbiota of broilers chikens. Sci J of Anim Sci. 2022; 10(6): 767-775.

Bashige V, Bakari A, Okusa P, Kalonda E, and Lumbu J. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of six edible rhizomes used in traditional medicine in Lubumbashi (DRC). Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2020; 14(4) : 1367-1380. DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v14i4.16

Dieumou FE, Teguia A, Kuiate JR, Tamokou JD, Fonge NB, and Dongmo MC. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) essential oils on growth performance and gut microbial population of broiler chickens. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2009; 21(8): 131. Available at: https://www.lrrd.cipav.org.co/lrrd21/8/dieu21131.htm

Ruiz-Navajas Y, Viuda-Martos M, Sendr E, Perez-Avarez JF, and Fernández-López J. In vitro antibacterial and antioxidant Properties of chitosan edible films incorporated with Thymus moroderi or Thymus piperella essential oils. Food Control. 2013; 30(2): 386-392. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.052

Shalukoma C, Bocreat J, Duez P, Pongombo C, and Visser M. Medicinal plants of the mountainous region of kahuzi-biega in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Use, accessibility and consensus of traditional healers. Bois Forets Tropiques. 2015; 326(326): 43-55. DOI: 10.19182/bft2015.326.a31282

Camile NK, Pascaline CA, Hervé T, Innocent AM, Gilchrist TD, Maël TF, et al. Effects of Cyperus alternifolius, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha angustifolia and Imperata cylindrica on growth performance, feed digestibility, gut microbiota, heamato-biochemical and immunity parameters in broiler chikens. J World’s Poult Res. 2023; 13(2): 268-279. DOI: 10.36380/jwpr.2023.30

Varghese A, Gavani U, Abraham S, Parambi DGT, Sathianarayanan, and Jose A. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial investigation of Typha angustifolia LINN. Int J Chem Sci. 2009; 7(3): 1905-1910. Available at: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20103017329

Harborne JB. Methods of plant analysis. Phytochemical methods. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer; 1973. p. 1-32. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-5921-7_1

Association of official analytical chemists (AOAC). Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Washington, DC, USA: 1990.

Van-Soest PJ, Robertson JB, and Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber neutral detergent fiber, and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci. 1991; 74(10): 3583-3597. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2

Association française de normalisation (AFNOR). Water tests, determination of inhibition of photobacterium, phosphoreum luminescence. National standards and national normative documents, NT90-320 experimental standard. 1991. Available at: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/fr-fr/norme/t90320/essais-des-eauxdetermination-de-linhibition-de-la-luminescence-dephotobac/fa024059/77210

Stice E, Telch CL, and Rizvi SL. Development and validation of the eating disorder diagnostic scale: A brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder. Psychol Assess. 2000. 12(2): 123-131. DOI: 10.1037/1040-3590.12.2.123

Zhang GF, Yang YZ, Wang B, Yang WR, Jiang SZ, and Gai GS. Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2009; 88(10): 2159-2166. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00165

Durrani FR, Sultan A, Jan M, Chand N, and Durrani Z. Immunomodulatory and growth promoting effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves infusion in broiler chicks. Sarhad J Agric. 2008; 24(4): 655-659. Available at : https://www.aup.edu.pk/sj_pdf/ IMMUNOMODULATORY%20AND%20GROWTH%20PROMOTING.pdf

Shihab IM, AL-Zuhari MT, Abdullah SM, and Mutar SS. Impact of supplementation Neem powder (Azadirachta indica) to diet broiler in immunological, physiological and productive traits. Adv Environ

Biol. 2017; 11(3): 44-51. DOI: http://www.aensiweb.net/AENSIWEB/ aeb/aeb/2017/March/44-51.pdf

Rahmatnejad E, Roshanferk H, Ashayerizadeh O, Mamooee M, and Ashayerizadeh A. Evaluation the effect of several non-antibiotic additives on growth performance of broiler chikens. J Anim Vet Adv. 2009; 8(8): 1670-1673. DOI: https://medwelljournals.com/abstract/? doi=javaa.2009.1670.1673

Humphrey BD, and Klasing KC. Modulation of nutrient metabolism and homeostasis by the immune system. Worlds Poult Sci J. 2004; 60(1): 90-100. DOI: 10.1079/WPS20037

Tchoffo Herve T, Raphaël KJ, Ferdinand N, Victor Herman N, Willy Marvel NM, et al. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil on growth and laying performances, serum metabolites, and egg yolk antioxidant and cholesterol status in laying Japanese quail. J Vet Med. 2019 ; 2019: 7857504. DOI: 10.1155/2019/7857504

Grajek W, Olejnik A, and Sip A. Probiotics, prebiotics and antioxidants as functional foods. Biochim Pol. 2005; 52(3): 665-671. DOI: 10.18388/abp.2005_3428

Elaroussi MA, Mohamed MS, El-Barkouki EM, Abdou AM, and Hatab MH. Ochratoxicosis in broiler chickens: Functional and histological changes in target organs. Int J Poult Sci. 2008; 7(5): 414-422. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2008.414.422

Fooks LJ, and Gibson GR. Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora. Br J Nutr. 2002; 88(S1): 39-49. DOI: 10.1079/BJN2002628

Rahimian Y, Faghani M, Davoodi SM, Rafiee A, Davoodpoor, and Nezhad MHG. Potential use of protexin probiotic and black pepper powder on Cobb 500 broiler chicks. Azarian J Agric. 2016; 3(6): 129-134. Available at: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20173103282

Ouedraogo B, Nikiema ZS, Sanou J, and Zoundi SJ. Study of the supplementation of turmeric powder as a growth promoting phytobiotic in chicken feed in Burkina Faso. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2021; 15(5): 16820-16833. Available at: https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs/article/ view/220225

Herawati. The effect of feeding red ginger as phytobiotic on body weight gain, feed conversion and internal organs condition of broiler. Int J Poult Sci. 2010; 9: 963-967. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2010.963.967

Nouzarian R, Tabeidian SA, Toghyani M, and Ghalamkari G. Effect of turmeric powder on performance, carcass traits, humoral immune responses, and serum metabolites in broiler chikens. J Anim Feed Sci. 2011; 20: 389-400. DOI: 10.22358/jafs/66194/2011

Huarachi-Olivera R, Duenas-Gonza A, Yapo-Patricia U, and Margiht V. Bioelectrogenesis with microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using the microalga chlorella vulgaris and bacteria communities. Electron J Biotechnol. 2018; 31: 34-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejbt.2017.10.013

Brenes A, and Roura E. Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2010; 158(1-2): 1-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.03.007

Isaac LJ, Abah G, Akpan B, and Ekaette IU. Haematological properties of different bredds and sexes of rabbits. Proceeding of the 18th Annual conference of Animal Science Associated of Nigeria. 2013; p. 24-27.

Etim NN, Williams ED, Akpabio U, and Offiong EEA. Haematological parameters and factors affecting their values. Agric Sci. 2014; 2(1): 37-47. DOI: 10.12735/as.v2i1p37

Kana JR, Mube KH, Ngouana TR, Tsafong F, Komguep R, Yangoue A, et al. Effect of dietary mimosa small bell (Dichostachys glomerata) fruit supplement as alternative to antibiotic growth promoter for broiler chicken. J World’s Poult Res. 2017; 7(2): 27-34. Available at: https://jwpr.science-line.com/attachments/article/40/J%20World% 20Poult%20Res%207(1)%2027-34,%202017.pdf