Treatment of Infectious Coryza in Canaries: Antibiotic Sensitivity and Clinical Outcomes

Main Article Content

Alireza Koochakzadeh
Omid BehrouziNasab
Majid Kazemnezhad
Mahyar Yarahmadi Khorasani


Introduction: Infectious coryza (IC) is a respiratory disease that affects poultry and other avian species. It is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. Common clinical signs of IC include rhinitis, facial swelling, anorexia, and retarded growth in young poultry.   

Case report: This report delves into a specific outbreak of IC among a herd of 120 ornamental canaries in Iran in February 2021, where 15 canaries succumbed to the disease. The canaries indicated symptoms, such as swollen heads, closed eyes, severe sinusitis, weight loss, loss of appetite, and reduced ovulation. After the necropsy, a clumpy discharge in the eyes and sinuses and minor bleeding were observed in the trachea. Samples from the sinuses of dead canaries were taken to the laboratory (Mashhad, Iran), and it was determined that the bacteria responsible for the deaths belonged to the genus Avibacterium. Avibacterium spp. are slow-growing and require a specific factor, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD), for growth. The antibacterial susceptibility of the bacteria was tested using 18 different antibiotics. Based on the results, fosfomycin and amikacin were selected for treatment. The birds were administered oral fosfomycin (160 milligrams per kilogram) and injection amikacin (10 milligrams per kilogram) for 7 consecutive days. However, a recurrence of symptoms was observed a week after the initial treatment (second outbreak), prompting a further 5 days of treatment. The isolate was completely sensitive to fosfomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, penicillin, amikacin, and furazolidone and the bacterium showed intermediate susceptibility to other antibiotics which tested. After 72 hours of treatment, casualties ceased, and clinical symptoms were reduced. Complete resolution of symptoms was observed within a week. In the second outbreak of the disease, no casualties occurred, and the symptoms vanished within 48 hours of initiating treatment.

Conclusion: This case report underscored the infection of canaries flock by Avibacterium spp., which was sensitive to fosfomycin and amikacin in laboratory conditions, and and effectively facilitated the recovery of the infected birds in vivo. The antibiotic sensitivity test provided useful information for finding an effective treatment against bacterial infection, emphasizing the significance of collaborating with laboratories for optimal results. Furthermore, continuous monitoring of this isolate is imperative, as it may potentially play a role in upper respiratory disease outbreaks across diverse avian species.

Article Details

How to Cite
Koochakzadeh, A., BehrouziNasab, O., Kazemnezhad, M., & Yarahmadi Khorasani, M. (2023). Treatment of Infectious Coryza in Canaries: Antibiotic Sensitivity and Clinical Outcomes. Journal of World’s Poultry Science, 2(2), 8–12.
Case Report


Blackall J, and Hinz KH. Infectious coryza and related diseases. In: Pattison M, McMullin PF, Bradbury JM, Alexander DJ, editors. Poultry Diseases. 6th ed. Edinburgh: W.B. Saunders; 2008. p. 155-159.

Garcia A, Angulo E, Blackall PJ, and Ortiz AM. The presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–independent Haemophilus paragallinarum in Mexico. Avian Dis, 2004; 48(2): 425-429. DOI:

Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Carter ME,Donnelly WJC, and Leonard FC, editors. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. Oxford: Blackwell science; 2002: Available at:

Blackall PJ, Christensen H, Beckenham T, Blackall LL, and Bisgaard M. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum,[Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov., Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005; 55(1): 353-362. DOI:

Akter S, Ali M, Das PM and Hossain MM. Isolation and identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum, the causal agent of infectious coryza (IC) from layer chickens in Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Agric Univ. 2013; 11(1): 87-96. DOI:

Durairajan R, Sharma M, and Murugan M. Detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum in commercial poultry and their antibiogram. Tamil Nadu J Vet Anim Sci. 2013; 9(4): 332-337.

Patil V, Mishra D, and Mane D. Isolation, characterization and serological study of Avibacterium paragallinarum field isolates from Indian poultry. J Anim Poult Sci. 2016; 5(1): 13-20.

Swayne DE. Diseases of poultry. 13th ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.

Anjaneya, Singh SD, Dhama K, Wani MY, Gowthaman V, and Chawak MM. Molecular characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from poultry flocks of India. Asian J Anim Vet Adv. 2014; 9(7): 440-451. Available at:

Xie H, Li H, Yu C, Miao Y, Wu Y, Jia R, et al. Avibacterium paragallinarum: An emerging birds pathogen in Qinling wildlife conservation center, China. Animal Dis. 2023; 3(1): 19. DOI:

Page L. Haemophilus infections in chickens. 1. Characteristics of 12 Haemophilus isolates recovered from diseased chickens. Am J Vet Res. 1962; 23: 85-95. Available at:

Blackall P, and G Reid. Further characterization of Haemophilus paragallinarum and Haemophilus avium. Vet Microbiol. 1982; 7(4): 359-367. DOI:

Chen X, Miflin JK, Zhang P, and Blackall PJ. Development and application of DNA probes and PCR tests for Haemophilus paragallinarum. Avian Dis. 1996; 40(2): 398-407. DOI:

Nouri A, Bashashati M, Mirzaie SGh, Shoshtari A, and Banani M. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Avibacterium paragallinarum from backyard chicken in retail markets of karaj and tehran cities, Iran. Arch Razi Inst. 2021; 76(4): 1047-1053. DOI:

Doneley B. Avian medicine and surgery in practice: companion and aviary birds. CRC press; 2018.

Mei C, Xian H, Blackall PJ, Hu W, Zhang X, and Wang H. Concurrent infection of Avibacterium paragallinarum and fowl adenovirus in layer chickens. Poult Sci. 2020; 99(12): 6525-6532. DOI:

Morales-Erasto V, Falconi-Agapito F, Luna-Galaz GA, Saravia LE, Montalvan-Avalos A, E.Soriano-Vargas E, et al. Coinfection of Avibacterium paragallinarum and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in Chickens from Peru. Avian Dis. 2016; 60(1): 75-78. DOI:

Paudel S, Hess M, and Hess C. Coinfection of Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis in specific-pathogen-free chickens complicates clinical signs of infectious coryza, which can be prevented by vaccination. Avian Dis. 2017; 61(1): 55-63. DOI:

Blackall PJ. Antimicrobial drug resistance and the occurrence of plasmids in Haemophilus paragallinarum. Avian Dis. 1988; 32(4): 742-747. DOI:

Ali M, Hossain MS, Akter S, Khan MAHNA, and Hossain MM. Pathogenesis of infectious coryza in chickens (Gallus gallus) by Avibacterium paragallinarumn isolate of Bangladesh. Agriculturists. 2013; 11(1): 39-46. Available at:

Anjaneya, Singh SD, Dhama K, Gowthaman V, and Chawak MM. Pathogenicity study of field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum in experimentally infected birds. Indian J Vet Pathol. 2013; 37(1): 13-17. Available at:

Muhammad TN, and Sreedevi B. Detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum by polymerase chain reaction from outbreaks of infectious coryza of poultry in Andhra Pradesh. Vet world. 2015; 8(1): 103-108. DOI:

Akter S, Saha S, Ahmed Khan K, Amin M, and Haque E. Isolation and identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum from layer chickens in Gazipur, Bangladesh. Microbes and Health. 2014; 3(1): 9-11. Available at:

Priya P, Vamshi Krishna S, Dineshkumar V, and Mini M. Isolation and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from ornamental birds in Thrissur, Kerala. Int J Life Sci. 2012; 1(3): 87-88. Available at:

Bragg RR. Virulence of South African isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum. Part 1: NAD-dependent field isolates. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2002; 69: 171-175. Available at:

Badouei MA, Sadrzadeh A, Azad N, Blackall P, Madadgar O, Charkhkar S. and Isolation and molecular identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum in suspected cases of infectious coryza. Turkish J Vet Anim Sci. 2014; 38(1): 46-49. DOI:

Chukiatsiri K, et al. Serovar identification, antimicrobial sensitivity, and virulence of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from chickens in Thailand. Avian Dis. 2012; 56(2): 359-364. DOI:

Blackall PJ, and Soriano‐Vargas E. Infectious coryza and related bacterial infections. In: Swayne DE, Boulianne M, Logue CM, McDougald LR, Nair V, Suarez DL, de Wit S, Grimes T, Johnson D, Kromm M, Yodiantara Prajitno T, Rubinoff I, Zavala G, editors. Diseases of poultry. 2020; Chapter 20, p. 890-906. DOI:

Hsu YM, Shieh HK, Chen WH, Sun TY, and Shiang JH. Antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiles and haemocin activities of Avibacterium paragallinarum strains. Vet Microbiol. 2007; 124(3-4): 209-218. DOI:

Rajurkar G, Roy A, and Yadav MM. An overview on Epidemiologic investigations of Infectious coryza. Vet World. 2009; 2(10): 401-403. Available at:

Most read articles by the same author(s)